Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Physics Prize Committee has unanimously chosen the following two candidates to equally share the 1988 Wolf Prize in Physics: Roger Penrose and Stephen W. Hawking.

Roger Penrose
University of Oxford
Oxford, United Kingdom

“for their brilliant development of the theory of general relativity, in which they have shown the necessity for cosmological singularities and have elucidated the physics of black holes. In this work they have greatly enlarged our understanding of the origin and possible fate of the Universe.”

Professor Roger Penrose has made remarkable seminal contributions to the development of the general theory of relativity as well as to many other subjects in mathematical physics. He initiated the greatest discoveries in classical general relativity since its founding over seventy years ago by finding those conditions which must necessarily lead to “singularities” in any universe. These were applied to our own Universe to show that it must have began in a “big bang” and may end in a corresponding “crunch”. Related applications include the description of configurations in nature which lead inexorably to the formation of black holes. Penrose also showed how various natural processes may be extracting energy from the spin of such black holes. He has greatly enlarged our understanding of space – time by powerful analyses of its possible structure and by the invention of mathematical tools designed to allow an entirely new framework for the description of physical phenomena.

Physics

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Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gilles Brassard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Charles H. Bennett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michel Mayor

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Didier Queloz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoseph Imry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert P. Kirshner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

James D. Bjorken

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Zoller

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Juan Ignacio Cirac

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Jacob Bekenstein

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maximilian Haider

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Harald Rose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John F. Clauser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anton Zeilinger

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Alain Aspect

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Grünberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert Fert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Daniel Kleppner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2005

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Higgs

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

François Englert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bertrand Halperin

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anthony J. Leggett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Raymond Davis Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Dan Shechtman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1999

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yakir Aharonov

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael V. Berry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1997/8

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoichiro Nambu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Benoit B. Mandelbrot

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1993

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1992

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Valentine L. Telegdi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maurice Goldhaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

David J. Thouless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Stephen W. Hawking

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Riccardo Giacconi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bruno B. Rossi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Mitchell J. Feigenbaum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert J. Libchaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Philippe Nozières

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Conyers Herring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Theodore H. Maiman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter B. Hirsch

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Erwin L. Hahn

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Martin L. Perl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leon M. Lederman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Victor J. Weisskopf

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gerard ‘T Hooft

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Freeman J. Dyson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael E. Fisher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leo P. Kadanoff

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Kenneth G. Wilson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giuseppe Occhialini

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

George E. Uhlenbeck

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Chien-Shiung Wu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1978

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.