John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1997/8

The Prize Committee for Physics has unanimously decided that the Prize for 1997/8 be awarded to:

 

John A. Wheeler
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey, and
University of Texas
Austin, USA

 

“for his seminal contributions to black holes physics, to quantum gravity, and to the theories of nuclear scattering and nuclear fission.”

 

With his analysis of the fate of cold massive objects, Professor John A. Wheeler catalyzed the emergence of black hole physics. Wheeler recognized that black holes are sinks of information, enunciated the highly influential principle of black hole uniqueness, “black holes have no hair”, and laid (with Regge) the foundations of black hole stability theory. To face the challenge posed by total gravitational collapse, he formulated the basis of canonical quantum gravity theory, including geometrodynamics, superspace, and (with B. DeWitt) the celebrated Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Well before the discovery of pulsars, he recognized that the Crab supernova remnant should be energized by a magnetized spinning neutron star. In the heyday of nuclear physics, he introduced the concept of the S-matrix (scattering matrix), which is now used in many branches of physical science, and (with Bohr) originated the theory of nuclear fission. His views of the role of the quantum principle in physics are among the most farseeing of our time. In the course of his long career, he trained and stimulated several generations of physicists.

 

John Archibald Wheeler of the Princeton University and the University of Texas at Austin, was cited in the Wolf Prize in Physics for leading the development of black hole physics . After recognizing that any large collection of cold matter has no choice but to yield to the pull of gravity and undergo total collapse, Wheeler in 1968 dubbed the resulting object a “black hole”. Black holes have since become focus in gravitation theory, astrophysics, and elementary particle theory. Many features of the modern theory of black holes were developed by Wheeler and his students.

 

When a cold mass is not big enough to collapse to a black hole, it forms, according to theory, a neutron star, a body of nuclear matter the size of a medium city, but with a mass of the sun. In 1966, Wheeler suggested that the energy required to power the Crab Nebula, a glowing gas cloud in the Taurus constellation , the Bull, known to be the remnant of the fatal explosion of a star observed in 1054, could come from a spinning neutron star, embedded in the Nebula. A year later radioastronomers discovered the first pulsars, which were quickly identified with the previously hypothetical neutron stars. The discovery of a pulsar in the Crab Nebula verified Wheeler’s imaginative prediction.

 

On the eve of World War II, Wheeler, working with Niels Bohr, developed the theory of nuclear fission, which quantifies the mechanism whereby heavy nuclei break apart to free energy and neutrons that can initiate a nuclear chain reaction. Both the atomic bomb and nuclear power reactors were designed in accordance with this theory.

 

John A. Wheeler is famous as a teacher, and during his long career has trained and stimulated generations of physicists. The great American theorist, Richard Feynman, was his first doctoral student.

Physics

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Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gilles Brassard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Charles H. Bennett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michel Mayor

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Didier Queloz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoseph Imry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert P. Kirshner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

James D. Bjorken

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Zoller

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Juan Ignacio Cirac

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Jacob Bekenstein

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maximilian Haider

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Harald Rose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John F. Clauser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anton Zeilinger

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Alain Aspect

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Grünberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert Fert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Daniel Kleppner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2005

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Higgs

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

François Englert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bertrand Halperin

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anthony J. Leggett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Raymond Davis Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Dan Shechtman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1999

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yakir Aharonov

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael V. Berry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1997/8

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoichiro Nambu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Benoit B. Mandelbrot

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1993

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1992

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Valentine L. Telegdi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maurice Goldhaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

David J. Thouless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Stephen W. Hawking

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Riccardo Giacconi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bruno B. Rossi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Mitchell J. Feigenbaum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert J. Libchaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Philippe Nozières

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Conyers Herring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Theodore H. Maiman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter B. Hirsch

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Erwin L. Hahn

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Martin L. Perl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leon M. Lederman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Victor J. Weisskopf

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gerard ‘T Hooft

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Freeman J. Dyson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael E. Fisher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leo P. Kadanoff

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Kenneth G. Wilson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giuseppe Occhialini

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

George E. Uhlenbeck

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Chien-Shiung Wu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1978

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.