Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Prize Committee for Physics has unanimously decided that the 2004 Wolf Prize be jointly awarded to: Peter W. Higgs, Robert Brout and Francois Englert.

Robert Brout
Universite Libre de Bruxelles

“for pioneering work that has led to the insight of mass generation, whenever a local gauge symmetry is realized asymmetrically in the world of sub-atomic particles.”

Four fundamental forces are presently known. Two of them have a long range: electromagnetism and gravity. Weak interactions have a short range, the composite hadronic-nuclear forces are also short-ranged although color interactions among their constituents, the quarks, grow with distance.

The carriers of the interactions are themselves particles–gauge particles. They have zero mass when the forces have a long range. Such is the photon. They are massive, when the forces have a short range. Electromagnetic interactions are very successfully described by a theory, which has a very large degree of symmetry, a local symmetry called gauge symmetry. On the one hand, it seemed that gauge symmetry necessarily implied that gauge particles have zero mass; on the other, in the absence of a local gauge symmetry, the weak and hadronic short-ranged interactions were ill defined.

Professor Robert Brout, in collaboration with Professors Francois Englert and Peter W. Higgs, have discovered how mass can be generated for gauge particles in the presence of a local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetry. This was demonstrated by them, both classically and quantum mechanically, successfully avoiding theorems initiated by J. Goldstone while indication that the theory would remain well defined (renormalizable). Similar ideas have been developed in the domain of condensed matter physics.

The work has deeply shaped the understanding of the fundamental interactions. It has allowed to unify the long-range electromagnetic forces with the short-range weak ones. This was manifested in the works of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg, determining the laws of the electro-weak forces. The discovery of Brout, Englert and Higgs, was essential to the proof of G. ‘t Hooft that the theory with massive gauge particles is well defined; and subsequent calculations in that theory, verified experimentally, culminating in the discovery of the massive W and Z particles.

Mass generation has been the cornerstone of many key theoretical results, including cosmology at high temperature and density, grand unified theories and the possible realization of the Dirac monopole. Mass generation is independent of the detailed short-distance physics. It could be driven, among others, by an elementary scalar, or by an effective composite scalar. Near future experiments are constructed to shed light on this fundamental question. The above indicates the far- reaching fundamental nature of the Brout-Englert-Higgs contribution.

Physics

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Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gilles Brassard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Charles H. Bennett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michel Mayor

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Didier Queloz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoseph Imry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert P. Kirshner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

James D. Bjorken

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Zoller

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Juan Ignacio Cirac

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Jacob Bekenstein

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maximilian Haider

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Harald Rose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John F. Clauser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anton Zeilinger

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Alain Aspect

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Gruenberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert Fert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Daniel Kleppner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2005

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter W. Higgs

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Francois Englert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bertrand I. Halperin

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anthony J. Leggett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Raymond Davis Jr

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Dan Shechtman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1999

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yakir Aharonov

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Sir Michael V. Berry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1997/8

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoichiro Nambu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Benoit B. Mandelbrot

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1993

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1992

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Valentine L. Telegdi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maurice Goldhaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

David J. Thouless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Stephen W. Hawking

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Riccardo Giacconi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bruno B. Rossi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Mitchell J. Feigenbaum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert J. Libchaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Philippe Nozieres

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1985

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Conyers Herring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Theodore H. Maiman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Sir Peter B. Hirsch

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Erwin L. Hahn

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Martin M. Perl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leon M. Lederman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Victor J. Weisskopf

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gerard ‘T Hooft

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Freeman J. Dyson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael E. Fisher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leo P. Kadanoff

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Kenneth G. Wilson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giuseppe Occhialini

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

George E. Uhlenbeck

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Chien-Shiung Wu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1978

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.