Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The  Prize Physics Committee has unanimously decided that the 2011 Wolf Prize will be awarded to Harald Rose, Maximilian Haider and Knut Urban.

 

The electron microscope is one of the most widely used research tools in modern science, playing a pivotal role in virtually all areas of natural sciences, as well as in a broad range of technologies, from basic research to vital industries.

 

Since its invention in 1931, the performance of electron microscopy has been limited by the effects of the aberrations of the electron lenses used, which kept its spatial resolving power at values far below the theoretical limit. Given its broad role in advancing modern science and technology, extraordinary efforts were made, worldwide, to overcome these limitations. But, for over half a century, these attempts failed.

 

Working together since 1990, the three Wolf Prize Laureates jointly succeeded in realizing aberration-corrected electron optics for the first time. As a result, they have advanced the resolution of transmission electron microscopy to atomic and sub-atomic dimensions. Their work was inspired by a novel optical concept for the correction of spherical aberration of the objective lens of an electron microscope, developed by Harald Rose (born 1935, Germny). Based on this corrector principle, Maximilian Haider (born 1950, Austria) constructed the first prototypical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. Knut Urban (born 1941,Germany) developed this prototype into a working platform for atomic-resolution electron microscopy. He also developed the theoretical and methodological basis for extending and interpreting microscopy in sub-atomic dimensions.

 

For the first time, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy has permitted localization of atoms with an accuracy of a picometer, corresponding to one hundredth the size of a hydrogen atom. The ability to measure individual atomic positions with picometer precision and to correlate atomic-scale structure with macroscopic physical properties

 

constitutes a major breakthrough in materials science, with implications for many other areas of science and technology. The breakthrough in exploring the microcosm comes at a time when developing nanotechnologies and getting them to work for a number of applications, calls for high-resolution, high-sensitivity instrumentation for research, synthesis and validation of novel techniques.

 

Within less than five years since the commercialization of aberration-corrected electron microscopy, more than 200 of these instruments have been ordered by university and industrial research laboratories all over the world, pointing to the central role that state-of-the-art electron microscopy plays in 21st century research and putting an end to decades of stagnation in this key area of scientific instrumentation and industrial technology.

Physics

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Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gilles Brassard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Charles H. Bennett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michel Mayor

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Didier Queloz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoseph Imry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert P. Kirshner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

James D. Bjorken

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Zoller

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Juan Ignacio Cirac

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Jacob Bekenstein

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maximilian Haider

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Harald Rose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John F. Clauser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anton Zeilinger

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Alain Aspect

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Gruenberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert Fert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Daniel Kleppner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2005

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter W. Higgs

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Francois Englert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bertrand I. Halperin

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anthony J. Leggett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Raymond Davis Jr

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Dan Shechtman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1999

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yakir Aharonov

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Sir Michael V. Berry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1997/8

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoichiro Nambu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Benoit B. Mandelbrot

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1993

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1992

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Valentine L. Telegdi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maurice Goldhaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

David J. Thouless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Stephen W. Hawking

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Riccardo Giacconi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bruno B. Rossi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Mitchell J. Feigenbaum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert J. Libchaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Philippe Nozieres

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1985

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Conyers Herring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Theodore H. Maiman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Sir Peter B. Hirsch

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Erwin L. Hahn

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Martin M. Perl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leon M. Lederman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Victor J. Weisskopf

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gerard ‘T Hooft

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Freeman J. Dyson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael E. Fisher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leo P. Kadanoff

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Kenneth G. Wilson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giuseppe Occhialini

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

George E. Uhlenbeck

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Chien-Shiung Wu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1978

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Physics unanimously chosen as the recipient of the first Wolf Prize in Physics;

 

Chien-Shiung Wu
Columbia University
New York, N.Y., USA

 

for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963 but is still continuing. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

 

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

 

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

 

Among Wu´s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac´s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.