Yoav Goldberg

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Yoav Goldberg

Bar-Ilan University

Description of Research

I work on developing automatic methods for understanding and generating human languages by computers (Natural Language Processing, NLP). Language is at the core of human intelligence, and is arguably what sets us apart from all other species. It is central to effective com mun icati on, as it facilitates the transfer of ideas across space and time. In the digital age, we see unprecedented growth in the scale at which individuals and institutions generate, communicate and access  information  in  written  or  spoken form. Finding ways for effectively leveraging the vast amounts of available data to discover and address people’s needs {social, professional , scientific or otherwise) is a fundamental problem in modern societies. Over the past decade we’ve seen tremendous progress in NLP capabilities, with NLP commonly facilitating breaking language barriers (machine translation), finding required information (search engines), and digesting large amounts of unstructured text into more convenient forms (summarization, information extr action). Despite this progress, the NLP problem is far from being solved, especially  when moving from types of text the systems are familiar with (mostly well edited English text ) to other genres or languages.

My research focuses on the building-blocks of NLP — the core algorithms that other language understanding systems rely on. These include computationally representing the meaning of words (lexical semantics); how words are combined to form phrases and sentences (synta x); and how this process can be reversed, inferring the structure of a sentence from its words (syntactic parsi ng).

Within lexical semantics, I worked on analyzing the foundation of “word embedding” algorithms. Word embeddings are the dominant and very popular framework for lexical semantics, and were at the time not well underst ood. In a series of works with PhD student Omer Levy we analyzed the mathematical and linguistic foundations of these  algorithms  and unified  many  algorithms  under a common  framework. This in turn allowed us to further generalize and improve the word embeddings technique. This line of work

was highly ·influentia I, accumulating over 720 citations since 2014. Products of the work are also featured in the upcoming 3rd edition of the definitive NLP textbook by Jurafsky and Martin .

Within syntactic parsing , my most recent contribution (with  PhD student  Eliyahu  Kiperwasser)  is  a parser based on bidirectional recurrent neural networks,  which  as of  April  2016 had  the  best  accuracy  in the world (the work has since been extended by  research groups  at Stanford, CMU  and Harvard)  . One of  my earlier innovations in parsing, the dynamic -oracl e training techniques, is integrated in several

widely-used parsers, including the open-source s pa Cy. i o NLP packa ge.

The field of natural-language processing interacts closely with the field  machine  learning. My  research is deeply rooted  in both fields, borrowing state-of-the-art  methods  in machine  learning and adapting them to fit the needs of linguistic tasks, leading to innovations in both machine learning and NLP. In the past two years, I became interested in the effective use of neural-n etwo rk s (a.k.a deep lea rn in g, DL) for NLP. A common trend in my work is to combine DL methods with linguistically grounded mechanisms, relying on in-depth understa nding of the DL algorithms as well as the underlying linguistic phenomena . Besides the accurate parser mentioned above, this line of work resulted in several best paper awards as detailed in my CV. I authored an extensive tutorial paper on DL techniques for NLP which is now being used in academic courses worldwide.

My focus is improving the coverage of these NLP building blocks. Current algorithms achieve impressive accuracies on well-formed English newswire text, but degrade considerably on other genres, severely limiting their applicability. I work on methods for extending their coverage to  a diverse set of textual genres (scienti fic, le gal, literary, colloquial , etc) as well as to spoken language. Accuracy also drops when attempting to work with languages with richer morphological sys t em s and freer word order than English (most of the world ‘s languages). In the Universa I Dependencies mu!ti -nati onal collaboration, we collect data on such languages under a common scheme. I recen tly started using this data to devise

DL-based lexical semantics and syntactic parsing algorithms tailored for such languages. If success ful, this will transform NLP from being applicable to a relatively narrow range of commercial scenarios to being universally applicable in a wide set of scenarios for the benefit of science and society worldwide .

The Krill Prize Winners

// order posts by year $posts_by_year;

Schraga Schwartz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Kfir Blum

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tomer Michaeli

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Filmus

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Meirav Zehavi

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Idan Hod

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Adam Teman

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yasmine Meroz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yakir Hadad

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonit Hochberg

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Neta Regev-Rudzki

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ofer Firstenberg

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amnon Bar-Shir

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shahar Kvatinsky

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yaron Fuchs

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Baruch Barzel

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Malachi Noked

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Noga Ron-Zewi

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dafna Shahaf

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ori Katz

Winner of Krill Prize 2019

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itzhak Tamo

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amit Sever

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Meital Landau

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Charles E. Diesendruck

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yakov Babichenko

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ayelet Erez

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Adi Salomon

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Elad Gross

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Emmanuel Levy

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anat Milo

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avi Shroeder

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Carmel Rotchild

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shiri Chechik

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonatan Dubi

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoav Goldberg

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Zvika Brakerski

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Asya Rolls

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nir Bar-Gill

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yossi Buganim

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eilon Shani

Krill Prize Laureate 2017

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Keren Censor-Hillel

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Netanel Lindner

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Maya Bar Sadan

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jakub Abramson

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itay Halevy

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yossi Yovel

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Daniel Deutch

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Assaf Rinot 

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Lioz Etgar

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dana Reichmann

Krill Prize Laureate 2016

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Ofek

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Amit 

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Barak Dayan

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Natalie Elia Herooty

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oded Rechavi

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Alex Retzker

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Michael Schapira

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Sharon Ruthstein

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Uri Shapira

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Moran Bercovici

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Or Dunkelman

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Irit Gat-Viks

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Lilach Gilboa

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Bouchbinder

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shahal Ilani

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roie Yerushalmi

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Daniel Podolsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Yehudayoff

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nathan Keller

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Niv Papo

Krill Prize Laureate 2014

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

David Nicolas Waldmann

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tomer Volansky

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nirit Dudovich

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anat Levin

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Sagiv Shifman

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itai Ynai

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amit Kanigel

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avinoam Zadok

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jacob Hanna

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jacob (kobi) Gal

Krill Prize Laureate 2013

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoel Shkolnisky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Alex Bronstein

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Erez Levanon

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amos Tanay

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nachum Ulanovsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Branslavsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Gil Alexandrowicz

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Louisa Meshi

Krill Prize Laureate 2012

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Amedi

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avishay Gal-Yam

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shai Meiri

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Taleb Mokari

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Reuven Cohen

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oren Cohen

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Shaked

Krill Prize Laureate 2011

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ehud Altman

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Kinneret Keren

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anne Bernheim

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dan Thomas Major

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Halperin

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Masha Niv

Krill Prize Laureate 2010

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Julia Kempe

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nathalie Questembert-Balaban

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ilan Koren

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Boaz Tsaban

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Debbie Lindell

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli C. Lewis

Krill Prize Laureate 2009

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shiri Artstein-Avidan

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Dagan

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roy Bar-Ziv

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli Berger

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Dor

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jeff Steinhauer

Krill Prize Laureate 2008

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Zeev Zalevsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tal Alexander

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roded Sharan

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dr. Yoav Tsori

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oren Froy

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Orian

Krill Prize Laureate 2007

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Leeor Kronik

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tal Pupko

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itamar Simon

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shulamit Levenberg

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dorit Aharonov

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli Barkai

Krill Prize Laureate 2006

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oded Regev

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ehud Behar

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonina C. Eldar

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoram Louzoun

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Deborah Fass

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Erez Lapid

Krill Prize Laureate 2005

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Tel Aviv University
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.