Zvika Brakerski

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Zvika Brakerski

My Research: Advanced Cryptography via Foundational Study

Can we delegate all of our computational tasks to a remote cloud server without surrendering the privacy of the data, even to the server itself? Can we compile computer programs in a way that completely hides their inner workings, but preserves their functionality? Can we give third parties such as companies or law enforcement access to our personal data while maintaining a mathematical guarantee that they can only use it in accordance with their declared privacy policy or warrant? These questions and similar ones are becoming increasingly pertinent as our society becomes more dependent on data that is being processed by third-party algorithms. In many cases, it might appear that utility or the greater good are at odds with privacy of individuals. My current research is focused on developing new cryptographic tools for mitigating this tension, via foundational investigation of the computational properties of mathematical structures.

State-of-the-art research in cryptography, including my own prior work, suggests that even though the aforementioned wish-list appears to be paradoxical, many of these goals can be achieved using new crypto- graphic structures, in particular relying on the intractability of computational problems on high-dimensional integer lattices. In the past, I was able to make significant progress in the task of fully homomorphic encryption, which allows computation on encrypted data without decrypting it first and without leaking information, and thus addresses the first question above. However, this is merely a gateway to a new world of cryptographic applications.

The grand mission of my research endeavor is to establish cryptographic tools supporting these appli- cations and to explore the mathematical and computational framework that governs the utility/privacy interplay. My exploration is internally motivated by the following two objectives: finding the conceptually simplest structure that provides the required property, and unifying our understanding by explaining various applications as different facets of a single phenomenon. Even though practical usability and improved secu- rity are not direct objectives, I believe, and my experience shows, that orders-of-magnitude improvements in efficiency and security follow from deeper conceptual understanding. Indeed, this has been demonstrated in my work on fully homomorphic encryption, which showed how to construct this strong primitive based on a much simpler mathematical structure than previously conjectured, and in turn led to a leap in the efficiency and security of implementations.

There is still a multitude of open problems in the study of fully homomorphic encryption, as well as in the study of other advanced cryptographic primitives. These include fine-grained access control to encrypted data via attribute based encryption, and the study of program obfuscation which allows  to  “encrypt”  a program such that it is still executable, but hard to reverse engineer. The current level of understanding of these primitives varies, and the existence of some, e.g. program obfuscation, is still in the realm of conjecture (albeit with significant supporting evidence).   The study of these problems leads us time and again to    the mathematical and computational properties of high-dimension integer lattices, which can be imagined as infinite high-dimensional periodic grids. Information can be embedded in these grids in a way that is computationally hard to retrieve, and yet which enables manipulation of the information in many interesting ways. This translates into cryptographic schemes with extremely rich functionality but with a high level of security (interestingly, at the current state of knowledge, such cryptographic constructions are even immune to attacks using quantum computers, which render older cryptographic primitives insecure). The study of the cryptographic properties of lattices is fairly young, and many important pieces of the puzzle are still missing.

Our horizons are constantly expanded by the de- velopment of new techniques that we are only beginning to master, and technological developments challenge us to provide solutions to new and more intricate problems than we faced before. I feel fortunate to be a part of this great scientific effort and am very excited to see where it leads.

The Krill Prize Winners

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Schraga Schwartz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Weizmann Institute of Scienc

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Kfir Blum

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tomer Michaeli

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Filmus

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Meirav Zehavi

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Ben Gurion University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Idan Hod

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Ben Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Adam Teman

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yasmine Meroz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yakir Hadad

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonit Hochberg

Winner of Krill Prize 2020
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Neta Regev-Rudzki

Krill Prize 2019
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ofer Firstenberg

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amnon Bar-Shir

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shahar Kvatinsky

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Technion Institute of Technology

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yaron Fuchs

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Baruch Barzel

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Malachi Noked

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Noga Ron-Zewi

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
University of  Haifa

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dafna Shahaf

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ori Katz

Winner of Krill Prize 2019
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itzhak Tamo

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Tel-Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amit Sever

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Tel-Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Meital Landau

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Charles E. Diesendruck

Krill Prize 2018
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yakov Babichenko

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ayelet Erez

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Weismann Institute

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Adi Salomon

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Elad Gross

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Emmanuel Levy

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Weizmann Institute

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anat Milo

Krill Prize Laureate 2018
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avi Shroeder

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Carmel Rotchild

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shiri Chechik

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonatan Dubi

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Ben Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoav Goldberg

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Zvika Brakerski

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Asya Rolls

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nir Bar-Gill

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yossi Buganim

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eilon Shani

Krill Prize Laureate 2017
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Keren Censor-Hillel

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Netanel Lindner

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Maya Bar Sadan

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Ben Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jakub Abramson

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itay Halevy

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yossi Yovel

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Daniel Deutch

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Assaf Rinot 

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Lioz Etgar

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dana Reichmann

Krill Prize Laureate 2016
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Ofek

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Amit 

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Barak Dayan

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Natalie Elia Herooty

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Ben Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oded Rechavi

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Alex Retzker

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Michael Schapira

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Sharon Ruthstein

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Uri Shapira

Krill Prize Laureate 2015
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Moran Bercovici

Krill Prize Laureate 2015

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Or Dunkelman

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
University of Haifa

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Irit Gat-Viks

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Lilach Gilboa

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
The Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Bouchbinder

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shahal Ilani

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Weizman Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roie Yerushalmi

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Hebrew Universuty of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Daniel Podolsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Yehudayoff

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nathan Keller

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Niv Papo

Krill Prize Laureate 2014
Ben Gurion University of Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

David Nicolas Waldmann

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
University of Haifa

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tomer Volansky

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Tel – Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nirit Dudovich

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Weizmann Institute of Sience

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anat Levin

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Sagiv Shifman

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itai Ynai

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amit Kanigel

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avinoam Zadok

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jacob Hanna

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jacob (kobi) Gal

Krill Prize Laureate 2013
Ben Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoel Shkolnisky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Tel- Aviv University.

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Alex Bronstein

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Tel – Aviv University.

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Erez Levanon

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Bar-Ilan University.

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amos Tanay

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nachum Ulanovsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Branslavsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Gil Alexandrowicz

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Louisa Meshi

Krill Prize Laureate 2012
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Amedi

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Avishay Gal-Yam

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shai Meiri

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Tel Aviv University 

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Taleb Mokari

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Reuven Cohen

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oren Cohen

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Shaked

Krill Prize Laureate 2011
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ehud Altman

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Kinneret Keren

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Anne Bernheim

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dan Thomas Major

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Bar Ilan University.

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eran Halperin

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Tel-Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Masha Niv

Krill Prize Laureate 2010
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Julia Kempe

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Nathalie Questembert-Balaban

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ilan Koren

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Boaz Tsaban

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Debbie Lindell

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli C. Lewis

Krill Prize Laureate 2009
Ben-Gurion University of Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shiri Artstein-Avidan

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ido Dagan

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roy Bar-Ziv

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli Berger

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
University of Haifa

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yuval Dor

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Jeff Steinhauer

Krill Prize Laureate 2008
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Zeev Zalevsky

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tal Alexander

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Roded Sharan

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dr. Yoav Tsori

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oren Froy

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Amir Orian

Krill Prize Laureate 2007
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Leeor Kronik

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Tal Pupko

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Itamar Simon

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Shulamit Levenberg

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Dorit Aharonov

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Eli Barkai

Krill Prize Laureate 2006
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Oded Regev

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Tel Aviv University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Ehud Behar

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yonina C. Eldar

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Technion

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Yoram Louzoun

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Bar-Ilan University

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Deborah Fass

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Weizmann Institute of Science

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.

Erez Lapid

Krill Prize Laureate 2005
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Dr. Eilon Shani 
Scientific Overview:
Plant growth and development is mediated to a large extent by hormones. Plants regulate hormone response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, perception, and signaling (1-3). In addition, plants exhibit the unique ability to spatially regulate hormone distribution ( 4, 5). This ability is illustrated most clearly in the case of auxin (!AA). The combined activity of auxin influx and efflux carrier proteins generates auxin maxima and local gradients that inform developmental patterning. The regulation of the cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux transporters determines the direction of auxin flow from one cell to another ( 6, 7). Until recently, little was known about the transport mechanisms and the distribution patterns of hormones other than auxin. These are exciting days for the plant hormone community as novel gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (CK) transporters have recently been identified (8-14) joining earlier findings on auxin transporters (15, 16), all are members ofNPF, ABC, or PUP families. My research group and others identified the NPFs as the first GA transporter in plants 14• Although our studies suggest that individual NPF and ABC genes have specialized functions, genetic analyses of the family have been limited by the scarcity of loss-of-function phenotypes. The major reason for this is that plant genomes are highly redundant. There are huge numbers of genes encoding NPF and ABC transporters (53 and 120, respectively, in Arabidopsis) that exhibit high redundancy despite diverse substrate specificity of the encoded proteins. This redundancy, with over 80% of all protein-coding genes belonging to families, illustrates the huge challenge to the field of plant genetics in general and to the study of hormone transport specifically. On top of that, certain transporters, such as some NPFs, can transport multiple hormone substrates (GA, ABA) generating a highly robust system that is unique and interesting but puzzling (J 2, 14, 17). Furthermore, transporters with high specificity for conjugated hormones, which must balance the subcellular active hormone pools, have not been identified.
We plan to address the burning questions that emerge from this recent progress in the field, all of which are challenging due to the functional redundancy of plant hormone transporters: 1) Do closely related NPF and ABC members transport multiple substrates and what is the biological importance of such activity? 2) Why have GA exporters, which must exist to enable the movement of the hormone, not been identified? 3) Are there specialized hormone transporters for conjugated hormones and what is their contribution to the rapid hormone response at tissue and subcellular levels? 4) Do subcellularly localized hormone transporters affect the hormone response and what is subcellular hormone map?
The major goal of the lab goals is to investigate the robust and specialized functions of plant hormone transporter families. In our lab we will are using multiple-targeted artificial microRNAs and CRISPR technology to establish Arabidopsis and tomato populations, respectively, deficient in multiple redundant hormone transporters. First stage, we generated a unique targeted forward genetic approach that bypasses functional redundancy in plants with a dynamic screening range. This allows us to first target the NPF and ABC families in Arabidopsis and tomato. At a second stage, we are using targeted high-throughput screens to identify developmental redundant phenotypes. These loss-of-function phenotypes combined with hormone-mediated physiological assays, analyses of transporter expression patterns and localization, and biochemical transport assays allows us to study NPF and ABC hormone transport mechanisms, identify missing exporters, and evaluate subcellular localization of hormone transporters. Our work in the past three years has identified novel putative GA, CK, IAA and ABA hormone transporters, including CRISPR application in tomato that recovered striking GA-mediated growth defects when six novel GA transporters were knocked out in tomato, thus emphasizing the outstanding strength of our screens. Having the novel CRISPR multiple-targeted platform at our disposal is a significant achievement, since it not only contribute to our understanding of hormone transport mechanisms but will also serve as a scientific breakthrough to overcome functional redundancy in all fields of plant biology and agricultural breeding.
In addition, there is growing amount of evidence suggesting that hormone transporters localized on intracellular compartments actively regulate the subcellular distributions of hormones and hormone intermediate (J 8-20). One of the labs aims is to obtain a deeper understanding of hormones distribution in snbcellular resolution, and address the question of quantitative endogenous hormone levels in different compartments. To profile cellular hormone metabolites within discrete organelles, we are using an innovative strategy to isolate distinct cellular compartments and reveal the complete profiles of active hormone and hormone precursors and conjugates in organelles. This approach will generate the first subcellular hormone localization map and will enable the quantification and characterization of the in vivo activities of known and unidentified subcellular hormone transporters. We believe that our studies will lead to a fuller understanding of hormone transporter functions and specialized subcellular activities.