Carolyn R. Bertozzi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2022

The 2022 Wolf Prize in Chemistry

is awarded to Professors Bassler, Bertozzi, and Cravatt

“for their seminal contributions to understanding the chemistry of cellular communication and inventing chemical methodologies to study the role of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in such biological processes”.

 

Bertozzi, an American chemical biologist from Stanford University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, is known for developing innovative technologies that have opened new avenues for biological discovery and therapeutic development.

From an early age, Bertozzi found herself naturally enthralled by science. Her father, who taught physics at MIT, encouraged her to explore technological tools from his projects and demonstrations. This resulted in an early enthusiasm for science that later fueled her drive to pursue the education necessary to become a leader in the field of biotechnology and a distinguished professor.

Bertozzi received her undergraduate degree in Chemistry from Harvard University in 1988 and her Ph.D. in Chemistry from UC Berkeley in 1993. After completing postdoctoral work at UCSF in cellular immunology, she joined the UC Berkeley faculty in 1996. In June 2015, she joined the faculty at Stanford University, coincident with the launch of Stanford’s ChEM-H institute.

The cell membrane plays an essential role in protecting the cell from its extracellular environment. As such, extensive work has been devoted to studying its structure and function. Crucial intercellular processes, such as signal transduction and immune protection, are mediated by cell surface glycosylation, which is comprised of large biomolecules, including glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids.

Bertozzi’s research has focused on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation. She invented the field of biorthogonal chemistry, which allows researchers to chemically modify mol¬ecules within living systems without interfering with native biochemical processes. Using biorthogonal chemistry, she has made fundamental breakthroughs in the understanding of the glycocalyx, the heavily glycosylated cell surface found on nearly every cell which serves as a mediator for cell-cell interactions.

Her pioneering work has opened up basic drug discovery and therapeutic targets associated with cancer, inflammation, bacterial infection, tuberculosis, and most recently COVID-19. These new therapeutic modalities include antibody-enzyme conjugates that can reshape the glycocalyx and lysosome-targeting chimeras (LYTACs)
that can degrade membrane-bound and extracellular targets. These unraveled the role of sugars in biology and in immuno-oncology. Bertozzi extensively commercialized these innovative technologies for both clinical and research applications.

Equally significant are her contributions to mentorship and diversity in the fields of chemistry and chemical biology. Carolyn’s commitment to mentorship is centered on her passion for diversity, equity, and inclusion in STEM.

“Carolyn Bertozzi is awarded the Wolf Prize for pioneering biorthogonal chemistry and understanding glycocalyx, and its roles in both health and disease, thus allowing for bioimaging, chemoproteomics, and in-vivo drug delivery.”

Chemistry

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Benjamin F. Cravatt III

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2022

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Carolyn R. Bertozzi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2022

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Bonnie L. Bassler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2022

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Leslie Leiserowitz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2021

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Meir Lahav

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2021

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Stephen L. Buchwald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2019

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

John F. Hartwig

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2019

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Omar M. Yaghi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Makoto Fujita

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2018

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Robert G. Bergman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2017

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Stuart L. Schreiber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

K. C. Nicolaou

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2016

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Chi-huey Wong

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2014

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Robert S. Langer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2013

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

A. Paul Alivisatos

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Charles M. Lieber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2012

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Stuart A. Rice

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Ching W. Tang

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

William E. Moerner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2008

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Allen J. Bard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2008

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

George Feher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Ada Yonath

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2006/7

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Richard Zare

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2005

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Harry B. Gray

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2004

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Ryoji Noyori

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2001

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

K. Barry Sharpless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2001

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Henri B. Kagan

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2001

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

F. Albert Cotton

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2000

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Raymond U. Lemieux

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1999

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Gerhard Ertl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Gabor A. Somorjai

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1998

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Samuel J. Danishefsky

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Gilbert Stork

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1995/6

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Richard A. Lerner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1994/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Peter S. Schultz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1994/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Ahmed H. Zewail

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1993

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

John A. Pople

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1992

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Richard R. Ernst

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Alexander Pines

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1991

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Duilio Arigoni

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1989

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Alan R. Battersby

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1989

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Raphael D. Levine

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Joshua Jortner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1988

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

David C. Phillips

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

David M. Blow

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1987

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Elias J. Corey

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Albert Eschenmoser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1986

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Rudolph A. Marcus

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1984/5

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

John S. Waugh

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Herbert S. Gutowsky

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Harden M. McConnell

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1983/4

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

John C. Polanyi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

George C. Pimentel

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1982

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Joseph Chatt

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1981

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Henry Eyring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1980

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Herman F. Mark

Wolf Prize Laureate in Chemistry 1979

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.

Carl Djerassi

Wolf Prize Laurate in Chemistry 1978

The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee for Chemistry for 1978 has unanimously selected:

Carl Djerassi
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA

“for his work in bioorganic chemistry, application of new spectroscopic techniques, and his support of international cooperation.”

Professsor Carl Djerassi’s work has had a unique impact on science, technology, and the betterment of mankind. He synthesized the first oral contraceptive, 19-norethindrone, which is the active ingredient in more than half of all oral contraceptives, the most widely used form of birth control in the world. His scientific work has been reported in over 800 published articles and books on synthetic organic chemistry. He has pioneered the use of various physical tools for the elucidation of the structure of organic molecules. He has been effective in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice. He has been responsible for important international scientific cooperative efforts between the United States Mexico, Brazil, Zaire, Kenya, and other countries, involving the creation of new research groups and institutions in chemistry and other fields of science and technology.

He is chairman of the United States National Academy of Science´s Board on Science and Technology in International Development and has been the driving force in recent Pugwash Conferences on the search for solutions to the world´s population growth problems. For all these contributions to science, to industry, and to humanity, Carl Djerassi is awarded the first Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry.