Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

Herbert Friedman

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

United States Naval Research Laboratory, USA

 

Award citation:

“for pioneering investigations in solar X-rays”.

 

Prize share:

Herbert Friedman

Bruno B. Rossi

Riccardo Giacconi

 

Friedman, Rossi, and Giacconi are universally recognized as the principal founders of X-ray astrophysics, a new field of astronomical science which has proved to be a prolific source of fundamental discoveries and deeper physical understanding about high energy processes in the universe. Their work has profoundly influenced virtually every area of astronomical research, from the study of the sun and other stars of all types and luminosity classes to investigations of the interstellar medium, galaxies, clusters of galaxies and the distant quasars. Their brilliant insights, technical inventiveness, and bold leadership stimulated the rapid growth of X-ray astronomy from its early stages of speculation and exploration in the 1950´s and 1960´s to its recent high level of productive research. All agencies engaged in space science are now developing major orbiting facilities for X-ray observations which will playa vital role in the future of astronomical science.

Using novel ultraviolet and X-ray photon counters in a rocket experiment carried out in 1948, Dr. Herbert Friedman (born in 1916, USA) and his associates at the United States Naval Research Laboratory detected X rays from the sun, thereby directly confirming the earlier hypothesis of Edward Hulburt that such radiation is a principal cause of ionization in the E region of the earth’s ionosphere. This pioneering research opened the field of solar X-ray astronomy which was explored extensively and almost exclusively during the 1950’s by the Friedman group. Among their achievements were the discovery of X-ray emissions from solar flares, the measurement of wide variations in the spectrum of solar X rays correlated with changes in solar activity, the first sustained observations of solar X-ray emissions by satellite-borne detectors, and the first imaging of the sun in X rays with a pinhole camera. Beginning in 1963 Friedman and his associates made important contributions to the rapidly growing field of extra-solar X-ray astronomy, including the identification of supernova remnants as powerful X-ray sources, and the first detection of X rays from an extragalactic source.

Physics

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Ferenc Krausz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2022

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Paul Corkum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2022

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anne L’Huillier

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2022

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giorgio Parisi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2021

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gilles Brassard

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Charles H. Bennett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2018

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michel Mayor

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Didier Queloz

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2017

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoseph Imry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2016

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert P. Kirshner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

James D. Bjorken

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2015

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Zoller

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Juan Ignacio Cirac

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2013

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Jacob Bekenstein

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2012

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maximilian Haider

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Knut Urban

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Harald Rose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2011

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John F. Clauser

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anton Zeilinger

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Alain Aspect

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2010

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Grünberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert Fert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2006/7

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Daniel Kleppner

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2005

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Robert Brout

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter Higgs

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

François Englert

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2004

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bertrand Halperin

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Anthony J. Leggett

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2002/3

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Raymond Davis Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2000

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Dan Shechtman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1999

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yakir Aharonov

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael V. Berry

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1998

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

John A. Wheeler

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1996/7

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Yoichiro Nambu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1994/5

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1994/5

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Benoit B. Mandelbrot

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1993

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1992

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Valentine L. Telegdi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Maurice Goldhaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1991

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

David J. Thouless

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1990

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Stephen W. Hawking

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Roger Penrose

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1988

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Riccardo Giacconi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Herbert Friedman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Bruno B. Rossi

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1987

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Mitchell J. Feigenbaum

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Albert J. Libchaber

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1986

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Philippe Nozières

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1985

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Conyers Herring

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1985

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Theodore H. Maiman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Peter B. Hirsch

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Erwin L. Hahn

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1984

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Martin L. Perl

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leon M. Lederman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1982

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Victor J. Weisskopf

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Gerard T. Hooft

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Freeman J. Dyson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1981

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Michael E. Fisher

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Leo P. Kadanoff

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Kenneth G. Wilson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1980

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Giuseppe Occhialini

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

George E. Uhlenbeck

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1979

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.

Chien-Shiung Wu

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 1978

Chien-Shiung Wu

 

Affiliation at the time of the award:

Columbia University, USA

 

Award citation:

“for her persistent and successful exploration of the weak interaction which helped establish the precise form and the non conservation of parity for this new natural force.”

 

Prize share:

None

 

Professor Chien-Shiung Wu (born in 1912, China)  has done outstanding experimental work on the mechanism of beta disintegration, and thereby, of weak interactions generally. This work extended mostly from 1948 to 1963. In addition, she has made important contributions to several other fields of fundamental physics, to physics Instrumentation, and recently, to biology.

In her most famous work, she demonstrated that the direction of emission of beta rays is strongly correlated with the direction of the spin of the emitting nucleus. This showed that parity is not conserved in beta disintegration, in accord with the epochal theory of Lee and Yang, which had been developed just a few months before.

The success of this theory raised the problem of the exact coupling between the nucleon, which undergoes beta decay, and the electron and neutrino, which are emitted in this decay.

Among Wu’s other contributions we want to mention her demonstration that the two quanta from the annihilation of positrons and electrons are polarized at right angles to each other, as they should be according to Dirac’s theory. This proves that electron and positron have opposite parity. In recent years (1966 to 1971), Wu has made a thorough study of the X ray spectra of muonic atoms and has become interested in biological problems, especially the structure of hemoglobin. Her Moessbauer studies of this substance have given surprising results, and have considerably clarified its structure.