The Wolf Prize laureates

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Dame Caroline Dean

Wolf Prize Laureate in Agriculture 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Allan H. MacDonald

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Yakov Eliashberg

Wolf Prize Laureate in Mathematics 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Emmanuelle Charpentier

Wolf Prize Laureate in Medicine 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Cindy Sherman

Wolf Prize Laureate in Art 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Rafi Bistritzer

Wolf Prize Laureate in Physics 2020

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Arvid Carlsson

Wolf Prize Laureate in Medicine 1979

The 2020 wolf prize in Physics is awarded to:  Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Allan H. MacDonald and Rafi Bistritzer.

 

Dr. Rafi Bistritzer

Applied Materials – Israel

 

“For pioneering theoretical and experimental work on twisted bilayer graphene.”

 

Since the 2004 groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material -graphene, several research groups were soon studying the properties of twisted bilayer graphene. Graphene is a significant foundation for an entirely new generation of technologies. The hope is that graphene-based applications will benefit the environment and reduce costs. Electronic and computer industry requires materials whose conductance can be controlled.

 

The work of Jarillo-Herrero, MacDonald and Bistrizer has shown that the conductance properties of graphene interfaces can be controlled via the spatial misfit angle between the layers and then at certain angles the electrons exhibit surprising physical behavior. This physical discovery has the potential of leading to an energy revolution.

 

In 2011, a group led by Allan Macdonald, a theoretical physicist from the University of Texas, researched an intriguing behavior of twisted bilayer graphene, where the atomic lattices of two stacked graphene layers are laterally rotated with respect to each other by a small misfit angle. According to the calculations of MacDonald and Bistrizer (who did his post-doctoral thesis under the supervision of MacDonald at that time), the tunneling velocity of electrons between the layers depends on the misfit angle and completely vanishes at the “magic angle” of 1.1 degrees. It was hoped that this discovery would lead to the creation of a new type of super-conductor, namely a material that allows electrical current to pass with no impedance and with no energy loss.

 

The original paper by MacDonald and Bistrizer, which describes their discovery, was not received with enthusiasm by the scientific community and was even forgotten for several years.

 

At the same time, Jarillo-Herrero was working on twisted bilayer graphene in his lab at MIT. He became convinced that the ideas expressed by Macdonald and Bistrizer had substance.

 

His research team  therefore invested considerable efforts in creating and measuring twisted bilayer graphene of various twist angles. The experiments proved successful in 2017 when it was found that positioning the layers at an angle of 1.1 degrees relative to one another (“the magic angle”) resulted in unusual electrical properties, precisely as MacDonald and Bistrizer have suggested. In this position, at sufficiently low temperatures, the electrons move from one layer to the other, creating a lattice with unusual qualities. The paper that described the phenomenon, which was published in Nature in 2018, revolutionized physics and triggered a flood of additional papers.

 

The discovery opens the door to building a super-conductor from bilayer graphene, in which electron movement is completely controlled by external electrical current. This electrical behavior resembles the behavior of copper-based superconductors called Cuprates. Cuprates demonstrate electrical conductivity with no resistance in relatively high temperatures compared with other super-conductors. For this reason, Cuprates now form a source of hope for realizing the dream of electrical conductivity with no energy loss at temperatures close to room temperature. If this mission is achieved, it would lead to a far-reaching energy revolution. However, one obstacle that prevents this revolution is that we do not yet have a theory that explains the behavior of superconductors at high temperatures. In the absence of a solid theoretical foundation, it is difficult to develop new, better materials. This is one of the reasons for the excitement around the discovery of bilayer graphene and the magic angle, which allows us to understand better what happens on the microscopic level when transitioning from a conductor to a superconductor state.

 

Rafi Bistritzer (1974, Israel) received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Tel Aviv University and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2007, Bistritzer moved to Austin, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Texas, under the guidance of Professor McDonald. In 2012, he returned to Israel and worked on research and development in the fields of electromagnetsm and algorithms. Bistritzer is currently the manager of an algorithm group at Applied Materials. Bistritzer’s group specializes in computer-vision and machine learning algorithms.

 

 

Prizes and scholarships laureates

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Schraga Schwartz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Kfir Blum

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Tomer Michaeli

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Yuval Filmus

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Meirav Zehavi

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Idan Hod

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Adam Teman

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Yasmine Meroz

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Yakir Hadad

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Yonit Hochberg

Winner of Krill Prize 2020

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Itzhak Tamo

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Amit Sever

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Meital Landau

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Charles E. Diesendruck

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Yakov Babichenko

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Ayelet Erez

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Adi Salomon

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

Elad Gross

Krill Prize Laureate 2018

Elad Gross

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mechanism-driven regulation of reactivity and selectivity in organocatalysis

The preparation of many materials that are essential for our daily life in a modern society, such as plastics, fuels and fertilizers, heavily relies on the use of catalysts. Although catalysts have been used in the chemical industry for more than a century, there are many details about their structure-reactivity correlations which are not yet clear. One of the questions that I find most intriguing in catalysis research is identifying how the physical and chemical properties of catalysts influence their reactivity. In order to address this goal I use state of the art spectroscopic tools to detect the locations in which chemical reactions occur on the surface of single particles. Using this approach, we have recently identified that chemical reactivity primarily occurs on the periphery of metallic particles while lower reactivity was recorded at the center of the particle. These conclusions will enable the development of optimized catalysts based on rational design.

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